*Last Updated: June 2024

A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding Different Types of Hernias

Experiencing abdominal discomfort and noticing a bulge in your abdomen or groin? You’re not alone, we’ve been there too. In fact, these are common symptoms of hernias – a condition affecting millions worldwide each year.

This blog post will guide you through understanding the different types of hernias, their causes and symptoms, as well as surgical procedures often used for treatment. Trust us – by the end of this article, you’ll be better equipped to deal with any hernia-related concerns that come your way!


Key Takeaways

  • Hernias are a common condition that can cause abdominal discomfort and bulges in the groin or abdomen.
  • There are different types of hernias, including inguinal, femoral, hiatus, incisional, ventral, and umbilical hernias.
  • Symptoms of hernias may include visible bulges, pain or discomfort in the affected area, and changes in bowel movements.
  • Surgical procedures like keyhole (laparoscopic) surgery or open surgery can be used to repair hernias.

Understanding Different Types of Hernias

There are several types of hernias, including inguinal hernias, femoral hernias, hiatus hernias, incisional hernias, ventral hernias, and umbilical hernias.

Inguinal hernias

Inguinal hernias happen in the groin area. They are the type we see most often. This is where your belly pushes through a weak spot near your thigh. You might notice a lump or feel some pain in this place.

It can be worse when you bend over, cough, or lift heavy things. Both men and women can get inguinal hernias, but they are more common in men. Even kids can have inguinal hernias from birth! It’s very important to call a doctor if you think you have one of these hernias.

Femoral hernias

Femoral hernias are a less common type of groin hernia that occur lower down in the thigh. They happen when tissue, such as intestine or fat, pushes through a weak spot near the femoral artery and vein.

Femoral hernias mostly affect women. If you have a femoral hernia, you may feel a lump or bulge in your upper thigh or groin area. It can be painful, especially when standing up or lifting heavy objects.

Surgery is usually needed to repair the hernia and prevent any complications from happening.

Hiatus hernias

Hiatal hernias are a type of hernia that occur in the diaphragm, which is a muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen. They happen when part of the stomach pushes up into the chest through an opening called the hiatus.

Hiatal hernias can be caused by factors like age, obesity, and certain medical conditions. Symptoms may include heartburn, difficulty swallowing, and chest pain. Treatment for hiatal hernias typically involves lifestyle changes and medications to manage symptoms.

In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the hernia and prevent complications.

Incisional hernias

Incisional hernias are a type of hernia that occur at the site of a previous surgical incision. When the abdominal muscles weaken or separate, it allows organs or tissues to push through and create a bulge.

This can happen after surgeries like appendectomy or C-section. Incisional hernias can cause discomfort, pain, and a visible lump near the surgical scar. Surgery is usually needed to repair the weakened area and prevent complications.

It’s important to seek medical attention if you suspect an incisional hernia to avoid further problems with your health.

Ventral hernias

Ventral hernias are another type of hernia that occur in the abdominal wall. Unlike inguinal or femoral hernias, which happen in the groin area, ventral hernias can appear anywhere on the front of your abdomen.

They often manifest near the belly button and are also known as umbilical hernias. Ventral hernias form when there is a weak spot or opening in the abdominal muscles. allowing organs or tissues to push through.

Factors like obesity, pregnancy, heavy lifting, and previous surgical incisions can increase your risk of developing a ventral hernia. Symptoms may include a visible bulge or lump in the affected area.and discomfort when coughing or straining.

Umbilical hernias

Umbilical hernias are a type of hernia that occur near the belly button. They are more common in infants and children, but can also affect adults. Umbilical hernias happen when part of the intestine or fatty tissue pushes through a weak spot in the abdominal wall near the navel.

Some factors that can contribute to umbilical hernias include obesity, pregnancy, and repeated strain on the abdominal muscles.

Symptoms of an umbilical hernia may include a bulge or swelling near the belly button, especially when coughing or straining, as well as discomfort or pain at the site. In most cases, umbilical hernias do not cause any serious complications and may even heal on their own over time.

However, if a large portion of intestine becomes trapped in the hernia (known as incarceration) and blood supply is cut off (strangulation), it’s important to seek immediate medical attention as it can be life-threatening.

Causes and Symptoms of Hernias

Hernias can be caused by a variety of factors, including heavy lifting, straining during bowel movements or urination, persistent coughing or sneezing, obesity, and pregnancy. Common symptoms of hernias include a visible bulge in the affected area, abdominal discomfort or pain, groin pain that worsens with activity or lifting objects, and an uncomfortable sensation when standing or moving.

Causes of hernias

Hernias can be caused by different factors. Here are some common causes:

  1. Weak muscles: When the muscles in the abdominal wall or groin area are weak, it can increase the risk of developing a hernia.
  2. Heavy lifting: Lifting heavy objects improperly or repeatedly can strain the muscles and lead to a hernia.
  3. Obesity: Excess weight puts additional pressure on the abdominal wall, making it more likely for a hernia to occur.
  4. Pregnancy: The growing uterus can put strain on the abdominal muscles, increasing the risk of a hernia in pregnant women.
  5. Chronic coughing or sneezing: Frequent and forceful coughing or sneezing can weaken the abdominal muscles and contribute to hernias.
  6. Previous surgery: Hernias can develop at the site of a previous surgical incision, especially if the area didn’t heal properly.
  7. Age: As people age, their muscles may naturally weaken, increasing the likelihood of developing a hernia.
  8. Genetics: Some individuals may have a higher risk of hernias due to inherited weakness in their connective tissues.

Symptoms of hernias

Hernias can cause different symptoms depending on their type and location. Here are some common symptoms to look out for:

  1. Bulge or lump: You may notice a protrusion or bulge in the affected area, such as the groin or abdomen.
  2. Discomfort or pain: Hernias can cause varying degrees of discomfort, ranging from mild to severe pain. The pain may worsen when you cough, lift heavy objects, or strain during bowel movements.
  3. Groin pain: Inguinal and femoral hernias often cause pain in the groin area, which can radiate to the thigh.
  4. Abdominal discomfort: Hernias in the abdominal wall, such as umbilical, incisional, and ventral hernias, can cause abdominal discomfort and tenderness.
  5. Changes in bowel movements: Some people with hernias may experience constipation or difficulty passing stool due to the pressure on the intestines.
  6. Nausea and vomiting: If a hernia becomes incarcerated or strangulated (when the blood supply is cut off), it can lead to nausea, vomiting, and severe abdominal pain. This requires immediate medical attention.

Surgical Procedures for Hernias

There are two main surgical options for hernia repair: keyhole hernia surgery and open hernia surgery.

Keyhole hernia surgery

When it comes to treating hernias, one common surgical procedure is called keyhole hernia surgery. This type of surgery is also known as laparoscopic hernia repair. During the procedure, small incisions are made in the abdomen.

A special tool called a laparoscope, which has a camera attached to it, is inserted through one of these incisions. This allows the surgeon to see inside and repair the hernia using tiny instruments that are inserted through the other incisions.

Keyhole hernia surgery offers several benefits compared to traditional open surgery, such as smaller scars, less pain after surgery, and quicker recovery times. It is important to note that not all hernias can be treated with this type of surgery, so it’s best to consult with your doctor or surgeon about which treatment option is right for you.

Open hernia surgery

Open hernia surgery is a surgical procedure used to repair various types of hernias. During this procedure, a single incision is made in the affected area, allowing the surgeon to access and repair the weakened abdominal wall.

Open hernia surgery is often recommended for larger or more complex hernias.

During the procedure, the surgeon may use sutures or mesh to reinforce the weakened area and prevent future hernias. The incision is then closed with stitches or staples. Recovery time after open hernia surgery can vary depending on individual factors such as age and overall health.

It’s important to note that while open hernia surgery has been shown to be effective in repairing hernias, there are risks associated with any surgical procedure. These risks include infection, bleeding, and damage to surrounding organs or tissues.

Strangulated Hernias: Risks and Treatment

Strangulated hernias occur when the blood supply to the hernia is cut off, leading to serious complications that require immediate treatment.

What is a strangulated hernia?

A strangulated hernia happens when the tissue or organ that has pushed through the weakened area of the abdominal wall gets trapped and its blood supply is cut off. This can be very serious because without a proper blood flow, the trapped tissue can become damaged or die.

It’s important to get immediate medical help if you think you have a strangulated hernia because it requires emergency surgery to fix it.

Risks and complications

When a hernia is left untreated or not repaired properly, there can be some risks and complications. One risk is that the hernia can become incarcerated, which means it gets trapped and cannot go back into the abdomen.

This can lead to severe pain and discomfort. Another risk is that the hernia can become strangulated, where the blood supply to the trapped tissue gets cut off. This is a medical emergency and requires immediate attention as it can cause tissue damage or even death of the affected area.

Complications from hernias may also include infection at the surgical site, bleeding, or recurrence of the hernia after surgery. It’s important to address these risks with your doctor and seek prompt medical care if you experience any worsening symptoms or complications.

Treatment options

Treating a hernia usually involves surgery to fix the weakened area and strengthen the muscles. Here are some common treatment options:

  • Hernia repair surgery: This involves closing the hernia opening and reinforcing the abdominal wall with stitches or a mesh patch.
  • Laparoscopic hernia repair: In this minimally invasive procedure, small incisions are made and a tiny camera is used to guide the surgeon in repairing the hernia.
  • Open hernia repair: This traditional surgical method involves making a larger incision at the site of the hernia to access and repair it.
  • Mesh reinforcement: Surgeons often use a synthetic mesh to provide additional support to the weakened area and reduce the risk of recurrence.
  • Non-surgical management: In some cases, especially for small or asymptomatic hernias, a “watchful waiting” approach may be taken. The patient is closely monitored, and surgery may be considered if symptoms worsen over time.


In conclusion, understanding the different types of hernias is important for identifying and treating this common condition. Whether it’s an inguinal hernia in your groin or a ventral hernia near your belly button, recognizing the symptoms and seeking medical attention is crucial.

With surgical procedures and treatment options available, you can find relief from discomfort and prevent complications. Stay informed about hernias to stay proactive in maintaining your health.


1. What are the common types of hernias?

The common types of hernias include inguinal hernia (groin), femoral hernia (upper thigh), umbilical hernia (belly button), hiatal hernia (upper stomach), and incisional hernia (resulting from surgery).

2. What are the symptoms of a hernia?

Symptoms of a hernia can include a visible or palpable bulge in the affected area, discomfort or pain, weakness or pressure in the abdomen or groin, and sometimes nausea or constipation.

3. How are different types of hernias treated?

Treatment for each type of hernia may vary, but options can include watchful waiting, lifestyle changes to manage symptoms, use of supportive garments or trusses, medication for symptom relief, and surgical repair if necessary.

4. Can a person prevent getting a hernia?

While some factors like age and genetics cannot be controlled, there are ways to reduce the risk of developing certain types of Hernias such as maintaining a healthy weight through regular exercise and proper lifting techniques.

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